“Sixty years ago I knew everything; now I know nothing; education is a progressive discovery of our own ignorance. Will Durant”



segunda-feira, 16 de fevereiro de 2015

Smart grid, a new source towards a more efficient and prosperous future Hong Ji-hye Korea University Graduate School of International Studies

초록 ( Abstract )
There is a growing agreement around the need we have to solve our problems from challenges like energy or power system security to issues on environment such as climate change by changing our ways that we supply and use energy. While the current power grid has leaded the economic growth over the past century and still works well, our electric infrastructure is rapidly running up against its limitations because the currently existing power grid has been expanded based on the 20th century design requirement which the important matters in contemporary days such as energy efficiency, environmental impacts and consumer choices were not considered at all. So, this is the time to invest for transforming into a more advanced grid system to achieve energy efficiency, good impacts on environment, and consumers’ empowerment. The advanced system which is considered as the most suitable model for a more energy efficient and prosperous future is a smart grid. When we deploy a smart grid, we will be able to realize more efficient, reliable, resilient, secure, responsive, and cleaner electric grid system. Moreover, as it is anticipated, a smart grid will be a driving force creating new business opportunities in energy market, electronic home appliances, automobile, and commercial or residential construction sector. So, both public and private sectors are making investment and promoting various activities to be the early movers in smart grid related areas. But as well as technical problems, we have financial challenges because transforming to a smart grid requires new and expensive investments and commitment by its many stakeholders. So understanding how the value of transforming to a smart grid will be created is an important step in defining the vision. And this is because why carefully designed regulations and standards and the most effective policy measures are required.
목차 ( Index )
1. Introduction 1
2. Need for Energy Efficiency Enhancement 3
2.1 Uncertainty of the Conventional Energy Sources Market 3
2.1.1 Rapidly growing energy demand 3
2.1.2 Supply insecurity 3
2.1.3 The projected energy price volatility 4
2.1.4 The limited reserves 4
2.2 Rising Concerns for the Environment 4
2.3 Sustainable Growth 5
2.4 Steps Forward 5
3. Current Status of the Electricity Sector 7
3.1 Significant Role of Electric Systems 7
3.2 Limited Aspects of Current Grid 7
3.2.1 Reliability 8
3.2.2 Economy 9
3.2.3 Affordability 9
3.2.4 Security 10
3.2.5 Environment 10
3.3 Transition to a Smarter Grid 11
4. Characteristics and Benefits of Smart Grid 13
4.1 The Concept of a Smart Grid 13
4.2 The Scope of a Smart Grid 14
4.2.1 Area, regional and national coordination regimes 14
4.2.2 Distributed energy resource technology 15
4.2.3 Delivery (Transmission and Distribution: T&D) infrastructure 15
4.2.4 Central generation 16
4.2.5 Information networks and finance 16
4.3 Characteristics of a Smart Grid 16
4.3.1 Informed participation by customers 17
4.3.2 Accommodation of all generation and storage options 17
4.3.3 Introduction of new markets, products, and services 18
4.3.4 Provision of power quality for the range of needs 18
4.3.5 Optimization of asset utilization and operating efficiency 19
4.3.6 Resiliency to disturbances, attacks, and natural disasters 19
4.3.7 Anticipation to system disturbances 20
4.4 Benefits of a Smart Grid as an Alternative Model for the Future 20
4.4.1 Advanced market mechanism with empowered consumers 21
4.4.2 Improved efficiency, affordability, and economics 23
4.4.3 Higher reliability 24
4.4.4 Environmental friendliness 25
4.4.5 Better security 26
5. Current Investment and Development Trends 28
5.1 Public Sector in the Republic of Korea and the United States 28
5.1.1 The Republic of Korea 28
5.1.2 The United States 29
5.1.3 Collaborative activities of the two leading countries 30
5.2 Industry Trends 30
5.3 Utilization Cases of Smart Grid Related Technologies 33
5.3.1 Distribution Management System platform by University of Hawaii 33
5.3.2 Perfect Power by Illinois Institute of Technology 34
5.3.3 West Virginia Super Circuit by Allegheny Energy 34
5.3.4 Beach Cities Micro-grid by San Diego Gas and Electric 35
6. Business Opportunities Created by Smart Grid 36
6.1 New Opportunities in Electricity Market Related Sector 36
6.2 New Opportunities in Electronic Home Appliances Sector 39
6.3 New Opportunities in Automobile Sector 40
6.4 New Opportunities in Commercial or Residential Construction Sector 41
7. Challenges Ahead 43
7.1 Technical and Industrial Challenges 43
7.2 Financial and Business Challenges 44
8. Conclusion 46

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